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25 October 2023, Volume 46 Issue 5
  
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  • Abstract ( ) Download PDF ( )   Knowledge map   Save
    Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army Medical(Hygiene) School, the predecessor of the ChinaMedical University, was the first Western medical college founded by the Communist Party of China(CPC). As abasic, core and compulsory course of Western medical education, anatomy plays an important role in the teachingsystem of the Red Army Medical School. Based on the analysis of the existing historical documents, we explored theopening and implementation of anatomy course in the Red Army Medical School and its teaching results. It is hope that readers can perceive the hardships of the CPC in establishing medical education during the New DemocraticRevolution era,and medical workers and medical students can be inspired to inherit the revolutionary heritage andcarry forward the spirit of Red Army military doctors, contribute wisdom and strength to the construction of a healthyChina.
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    Objective : To track and classify the branches of right hepatic portal vein in CT three-dimensionalreconstruction, and to explore its radiological characteristics and clinical significance. Methods : This studyconducted a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent CT abdominal contrast-enhanced examinations atShandong Provincial Hospital between 2021 and 2022 due to abdominal lesions. To facilitate cross-referencing withinternational studies, the course of portal vein branches was categorized and statistically analyzed based on theclassification methods proposed by Covey et al. and Atasoy et al. Results : There were a total of six variations in themain hepatic portal vein, including two variations in the right branch of the portal vein, with a higher variation ratecompared with previous studies. Conclusion :Anatomical variants of the hepatic portal vein are very diverse andshow greater variability in the CT images. Knowledge of these variations characteristics is extremely important forradiological localization diagnosis and transplant surgeries.

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    Objective : To investigate the mechanism of which calcitriol improves high altitude pulmonary edema(HAPE) in rats by inhibiting the B-cell receptor/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B(AKT)/nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) pathway. Methods : Male SD rats were randomly divided into normoxia, hypoxia, andhypoxia+calcitriol groups( 0.252 μg/kg). After continuous gavage administration for 5 days, except for the normoxiagroup, the other two groups were placed under simulated hypoxic stress at an altitude of 6 000 m for 48 h to establishthe HAPE rat model. Lung water content was determined and measured by dry and wet specific gravity methods;H-Estaining was performed to observe the pathological changes of lung tissue and inflammation score ; TUNEL methodwas used to detect apoptosis in lung tissue ; ELISA was used to detect B cell activating factor (BAFF), tumornecrosis factor-α( TNF-α),interleukin-6( IL-6), interferon-γ( IFN-γ), interleukin-4( IL-4) and interleukin-10(IL-10) in lung tissue ; immunofluorescence staining was used to observe the expression of CD21 and IκBα in lungtissue ; Western blotting was performed to detect the expression of PI3K, p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, NF-κB inhibitorα( IκBα) and p-IκBα in lung tissues. Results : Compared with the normoxic group, slight alveolar septal wideningand inflammatory cell infiltration were seen in lung tissue. Lung water content, lung tissue apoptosis, the contentof BAFF, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ and the expression ofCD21, p-PI3K, p-AKT were significantly increased.The content of IL-4, IL-10 and the expression of IκBα,p-IκBα were significantly decreased in lung tissue inthe hypoxic group. Compared with the hypoxic group,inflammatory cell infiltration was reduced ; lungwater content, lung tissue apoptosis, BAFF, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ content and CD21, p-PI3K, p-AKTexpressionwere significantly decreased ; IL-4, IL-10 content and IκBα, p-IκBα expression in lung tissue were significantlyncreased in the hypoxic+calcitriol group. Conclusion :Calcitriol can inhibit HAPE inflammatory response, and itsmechanism of action may be related to the inhibition of B-cell receptor/PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway

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    Objective :To study the role and mechanism of miR-378 in the occurrence and development ofnon-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)animal model. Methods : C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided intocontrol (normal diet) group, NASH model (high fat diet) group, miR-378 inhibitor group (high fat diet +antagomir-378) group, negative inhibitor (high-fat diet + antagomir negative control) group. Liver coefficient andhistopathological changes was observed in mice. The real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to verify theexpression of miR-378 in liver tissues of mice with NASH disease. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured by Olympus automatic chemical analyzer. The qRTPCRwas used to detect the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α), interleukin 4(IL-4), interleukin6(IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) andtransforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) and collagentype l α2(Col1α2) in liver tissues. Results :Compared with the control group, the liver coefficients of NASHmodel group and negative inhibitor group were significantly increased. Compared with the NASH model group,the liver coefficient of miR-378 inhibitor group was decreased. The structure of hepatic lobule in the NASH modelgroup was unclear, and there were obvious hepatocytenecrosis, hepatic cord disorder and inflammatory cellinfiltration. Then in the miR-378 inhibitor group, thestructure of the hepatic lobule was normal under lightmicroscope, and the hepatocytes were neatly arranged,and the fat infitration was allevuated. The expression of miR-378 in the NASH model group and in the negativeinhibitor group was significantly higher than that in the control group. Serum ALT and AST levels were significantlyhigher in NASH model group and in the negative inhibitor group than those in the control group. Compared withthe NASH model group, miR-378 inhibitor group showed a significant decrease in the serum ALT and AST levels.The expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in the NASH model group and in the negative inhibitor group weresignificantlyhigher than those in the control group, while IL-4 was significantly decreased, and the difference in MCP-1 was notstatistically significant. Compared with the NASH model group and in the negative inhibitor group, the expression ofTNF-α and IL-6 in the miR-378 inhibitor group was decreased significantly and IL-4 was increased significantly. Theexpression of TGF-β and Col1α2 was significantly higher in the NASH model group and the negative inhibitor groupthan those in the control group. In comparison to the NASH model group,the miR-378 inhibitor group showed asignificant decrease in the expression levels of TGF-β and Col1α2. Conclusion : MiR-378 may be a risk factor forNASH. Therefore, inhibiting the expression of miR-378 is beneficial for shortening the course and treatment ofNASH disease, providing a new potential therapeutic target for NASH.

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    Objective : To investigate the effects of nucleoside (acid) analogues combined with pegylated interferonon farnesol X receptor(FXR)-fibroblast growth factor 19(FGF19) pathway and Kupffer cell polarization inchronic hepatitis B rats. Methods : SPF SD male rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group,nucleoside (acid) analogue (nucleotide) group, pegylated interferon (interferon) group, and combination group.Except for the normal group, chronic hepatitis B was modeled by intraperitoneal injection of hepatitis B virus. Aftersuccessful modeling, the nucleotide group was given 10 mg/kg lamivudine. The interferon group was subcutaneouslyinjected with 5 μg/kg pegylated interferon, and the combined group was given lamivudine combined with pegylatedinterferon. The normal group and the model group were given gavage with the same volume of normal saline atthe same time. Serum virus was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, liver function was detected byautomatic biochemical analyzer, and pathological morphology of liver tissue was detected by H-E staining. Theexpression of FXR-FGF19 pathway protein was detected by Western blotting and Kuper cell polarization was detectedby immunohistochemistry. Results : Compared with the normal group, the serum HBsAg, HBeAg, ALT, AST,TBIL, iNOS and CD163 positive expression rates were significantly increased in the model group, while the proteinexpressions of FXR and FGF19 in liver tissue were significantly decreased. Serum HBsAg, HBeAg, ALT, AST,TBIL, iNOS and CD163 positive expression rates were significantly decreased in nucleotide group, interferon groupand combination group, while FXR and FGF19 protein expressions in liver tissue were significantly increased, andthe combination group showed significant reducitioncompared with the interferon group. Conclusion :Nucleoside (acid) analogues combined with pegylatedinterferon can significantly activate FXR-FGF19pathway, inhibit Kupffer cell M1 polarization, and promote Kupffer cell M2 polarization, and have an improvementeffect on rats with chronic hepatitis B.

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    Objective : To investigate the mechanism of action of different oxygen concentrations on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E (PGE)/E-prostanoid (EP) signaling and epithelial cell activity inchronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rats. Methods :The rats were randomly divided into the following groups : normal control group, COPD group, 50%O2 group, 70%O2 group, and 90%O2 group. Lung function ofthe rats was assessed. ELISA method was used to measure the levels of PGE2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8(IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in thebronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF). The percentagesof macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes werecalculated. H-E staining was performed to evaluate thepathological changes in lung tissue. Immunoblottingwas conducted to detect the protein expression of COX-2, EP1, and EP4 in lung tissue. BEAS-2B cells were dividedinto control group, cigarette smoke extract(CSE) group, 50%O2 group, 70%O2 group, and 90%O2 group. Cellproliferation and apoptosis ability of BEAS-2B cells were assessed using CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. Results :Compared with the normal control group, rats in the COPD group exhibited increased inspiratory resistance (RI)and total lung capacity (TLC), as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 50milliseconds (FEV50) to forced vital capacity (FVC). Compared with the COPD group, rats in the 50%O2 and70%O2 groups showed significantly decreased TLC and RI, along with a significant increase in the FEV50/FVCratio. The 70%O2 group exhibited the most significant changes in lung function. In contrast, the 90%O2 groupshowed significantly increased TLC and RI, as well as a significant decrease in the FEV50/FVC ratio compared withthe COPD group. Compared to the normal control group, rats in the COPD group had significantly elevated levelsof IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and PGE2 in BALF, along with increased total white blood cell count and percentages ofmonocyte-macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. In comparison, the 50%O2 and 70%O2 groups showedsignificantly decreased levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and PGE2 in BALF, as well as reduced total white blood cellcount and percentages of monocyte-macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. The 70%O2 group exhibited themost significant reductions. However, the 90%O2 group showed significantly increased levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α,and PGE2 in BALF, along with increased total white blood cell count and percentages of monocyte-macrophageslymphocytes, and neutrophils compared with the COPD group. Compared with the normal control group, ratsin the COPD group showed significantly increased protein expression of COX-2, EP1, and EP4 in lung tissue.However, the 50%O2 and 70%O2 groups exhibited significantly lower protein expression of COX-2, EP1, and EP4in lung tissue compared with the COPD group. In contrast, the 90%O2 group showed significantly increased proteinexpression of COX-2, EP1, and EP4 in lung tissue compared with the COPD group. In the CSE group, BEAS-2Bcell viability was lower and apoptosis rate was higher compared with the control group. However, the 50%O2 and70%O2 groups showed significantly increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis rate compared with the CSEgroup. On the other hand, the 90%O2 group showed significantly decreased cell viability and increased apoptosisrate compared with the CSE group. Conclusion :In COPD rats, oxygen therapy at concentration of 50% and 70%can inhibit the activation of the COX-2/PEG2/EP signaling pathway,improve lung function, reduce pulmonaryinfiltration, and increase epithelial cell activity. The best therapeutic effect is observed with a concentration of 70%oxygen. Therapy at a concentration of 90% excerbates pulmonary inflammation in COPD rats,decreases epithelialcell activity and promotes the activation of the COX-2/PEG2/EP signaling pathway.

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    Objective : To explore an efficient and rapid method of the isolation and cultivation of mouse dermalpapilla cells(DPCs) in vitro. Methods : The dermal papilla of six-week-old female C57BL/6 mice was harvestedby microdissection and digested with collagenase. DPCs were cultured and passaged in medium containing 10ng/mLbasic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in vitro. DPCs isolated with modified methods were evaluated and comparedwith the DPCs with traditional methods throughmorphological observation, cell counting, alkaline phosphatase(ALP) specific staing and ALP mRNA expression. Results : Compared with cells by the traditional method, almostall dermal papilla by the modified method adhered, migrated, and grew faster into cell confluence. The number ofcells obtained was 5.85 times that of the traditional method. In DPCs by the traditional method, aggregative growthwas noted after subculture at low passage numbers. After several passages, the cell morphology gradually becamelarger and degenerated, and less aggregative in pattern, even disappeared( 5th passage). However, the morphologyof the DPCs of the modified method still showed the characteristics of long spindle shape and aggregative patternin the 1st, 2nd, and 5th passage. The results also showed that the DPCs of the modified method had high ALPactivity, especially in the higher passage cells (5th passage). Whilenearly no ALP activity was detected in DPCsby traditional method at high passage. The expression level of ALP mRNAof the DPCs of the modified method wassignificantly up-regulated compared with that in the traditional method, especially in the cells at the 5th passage.Conclusion : The modified method is a simple and efficient method for isolating mouse DPCs. It can provide morereliable cell source for the research of hair follicle.

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    Objective : To explore the effect mechanism of Sanjie tablet on macrophage polarization and MAPK/JNK signaling pathway in rats with liver cancer. Methods : SPF grade male nude mice (SD strain) were randomlydivided into normal group, model group, sorafenib group, and Sanjie tablet group. The number of deaths of the ratswas recorded, and survival curves were plotted. HE staining was used to examine the pathological morphology ofliver tissues, immunohistochemistry was used to detect the protein expression of macrophage-specific markers inliver tissues, and immunoblotting was used to detect the protein expression of MAPK/JNK signaling pathway-relatedproteins in liver tissues. Results : Compared with the normal group, the number of deaths, CD163, p38MAPK,and JNK protein expression in liver tissues of the model group were significantly increased, the survival curve,and CD11c protein expression in liver tissues were significantly decreased. Compared with the model group, thesorafenib group and Sanjie tablet group showed significantly reduced number of deaths, tumor mass and volume,CD163, p38MAPK, and JNK protein expression in liver tissues, and significantly increased survival curve andCD11c protein expression in liver tissues. Additionally, the Sanjie tablet group showed significant differencescompared with the sorafenib group. There was no statistically significant difference in p38MAPK and JNK proteinexpression in liver tissues between the inhibitor group and Sanjie tablet group, while the combined group showeda significant decrease compared with the inhibitor group. Conclusion : Sanjie tablet may inhibit the tumor growthof rats with hepatocellular carcinoma by suppressing MAPK/JNK signaling pathway, inhibiting the polarization ofmacrophages towards M2 type and promoting the polarization towards M1 type.

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    Objective : To investigate the anatomical rules and clinical significance of the nourishing arteries in thehuman femoral head. Methods : Fresh specimens of human femoral head were selected to make the cast specimens ofthe femoral head nourishing artery. The source, running characteristics, distribution and quantity of the nourishingartery in the femoral head were observed. The external diameter of the thickest branch of the nourishing artery ineach group was measured under the microscope. Results : The superior, inferior and anterior retinacular arteriesentered the femoral head from the nourishing holes and continued directly into the superior, inferior and anteriornourishing arteries stems. The three groups nourishing arteries stems went down to the center of the femoralhead along the cortex. The nourishing arteries in the head of the human femur were divided into three areas : thenourishing arteries stems area, the arteries stems network area, and the terminal arteries network area. The threegroups of nourishing arteries stems constituted the nourishing arteries stems area of the internal artery of thehuman femoral head. After entering the femoral head and running to the center, the nourishing arteries stems wereinterwoven and anastomosed to form the arteries stem network area. The outer diameter of the arteries stems networkarea was similar to that of the nourishing arteries stems. The nourishing arteries stem area and arteries stem networkarea gave off abundant terminal arterial branches toform the terminal arterial network area, which wasdistributed in the area below the femoral head cartilagesurface. There were (9.84±1.12) nourishing arteries inthe head of the human femur, and the superior, inferiorand anterior nourishing arteries stems were( 6.04±1.18),( 2.64±0.84) and( 1.16±0.83), respectively. The outerdiameter of the thickest branch of the superior, inferior and anterior nourishing arteries stems was (0.56±0.12)mm,( 0.44±0.10) mm and( 0.20±0.07) mm, respectively. Conclusion : The cast specimens of human femoralhead internal arteries show that the femoral head internal nourishing arteries is divided into three areas and constitutea network structure of mutual communication, which can provide anatomical basis for clinical recovery of femoralhead blood supply.

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    Objective : To explore the correlation between physical measurements and grip strength of Wa adults inChina. Methods : The random cluster sampling method was used to measure the left and right grip strength of 562adults from the Wa ethnic group in China( 238 males, 324 females) along with nine physical measurements. The datawere statistically processed by Excel2003 and SPSS19.0 software, and the independent sample t-tests and Pearson linear correlation analysis were employed to examine the relationship between physical measurements and gripstrength. Results : There were significant differences in the left and right grip strength, hand breadth, hand length,upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, maximum upper arm circumference, upper extremity length,total arm length, upper arm length, and forearm length between the males and females of the Wa ethnic group. Thevalues of these measurements were higher for males than females. Among Wa males, there were positive correlationswith statistical significance between the left and right grip strength and the eight measurements as follows : forearmcircumference, maximum upper arm circumference, upper arm circumference, hand breadth, upper extremitylength, total arm length, upper arm length, and forearm length. Among Wa females, grip strength showed positivecorrelations with upper arm circumference, forearm circumference, maximum upper arm circumference, handbreadth, hand length, and upper extremity length, and the correlation coefficients were statistically significant. Thegrip strength of both Wa males and females was negatively correlated with their age, and the correlation coefficientswere statistically significant. The independent sample t-tests between the left and right grip strength of Wa malesshowed no statisticalsignificance, while those of Wa females were statistically significant. Conclusion : Thereare gender differences in various physical measurements and grip strength between males and females of Wa ethnicgroup in China. The change of grip strength follows thegeneral pattern of grip strength variation with age. Thegrip strength of both left and right hands has a certaincorrelation with some physical measurements, but thecorrelation differs between male and female.

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    Mitochondrial quality control( mitoQC) refers to the dynamic coordinated cycling of mitochondria throughuninterrupted biogenesis, dynamics (fission/fusion), autophagy, mitocytosis and translocation. MitoQC is becomingthe core regulator of central nervous system (CNS)homeostasis. As the "powerhouse" of neurons, mitochondria isone of the most important organelles for neuron metabolism and homeostasis. Maintaining the activity and functionalintegrity of mitochondria is very important to the health of neurons. It is well known that neuronal death and functionaldefects are important causes of neurological dysfunction in patients with CNS diseases. This article focused on theinternal relationship between mitoQC disorder and CNS diseases. The study was aimed to briefly review the researchmechanisms of maintaining and/or restoring neuronal mitochondrial homeostasis and its related cellular life processes.

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    Mitochondrial autophagy is a specific autophagy phenomenon that selectively degrades damaged orredundant mitochondria in cells, enabling cells to maintain the stability of mitochondrial quantity and quality duringstress damage, thereby maintaining the normal phenotype and function ofcells. Its molecular mechanism is relativelycomplex, mainly involving PINK1/Parkin pathway, NIX and BNIP3, FUNDC1 and so on. The abnormality ofmitophagy is closely related to a variety of diseases, and the role of molecular mechanisms regulating mitophagyat different stages in the development of diseases has been paid attention to. The research progress of mitophagy infibrotic lesions of various organs in recent years is summarized as follows.

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